High Blood Pressure: Hypertension Symptoms, Causes And Treatment at cdc.gov

High Blood Pressure:- High blood pressure, or high blood pressure, is a serious condition where the pressure of the blood flowing through your arteries is above the optimal level. High blood pressure is when the blood pressure is more than 130/90 mm Hg. Blood pressure is within the normal range when it is 120/80 mm Hg. The upper value of blood pressure is known as systolic blood pressure and the lower value is called diastolic blood pressure.

An increase in these two pressures is called hypertension or high blood pressure. It can have various causes, the most common being too high sodium intake, problems with the blood vessels, etc. A person who has been diagnose with high blood pressure needs to take the medications regularly and maintain a healthy lifestyle to keep their blood pressure under control.


High Blood Pressure

Hypertension, or High Blood Pressure, can occur in any person in any age group, but it is most common in people in older age groups. It is a very common condition that affects almost everyone these days. High blood pressure does not develop overnight, but over the course of many years. It is also called the “silent killer” because it can lead to fatal complications if not treated in time.

Narrowed arteries are the most common cause of high blood pressure. The heart has to pump harder to meet the body’s daily needs. This increases the pressure on the heart and also increases the pressure in the arteries. High blood pressure is associate with many serious medical conditions such as stroke, cardiac arrest, artery disease, etc. that can be life-threatening.

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High Blood Pressure Details

Article Name High Blood Pressure
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Types of High Blood Pressure

High Blood Pressure can diagnosed using the blood pressure readings on the sphygmomanometer. The readings can be taken at the following times:

Healthy Blood Pressure

A healthy blood pressure is when the systolic blood pressure is up to 120 mm Hg and the diastolic blood pressure is up to 80 mm Hg.

Elevated Blood Pressure

This is when the systolic blood pressure is between 120 and 129 mm Hg and the diastolic blood pressure is below 80 mm Hg. This condition cannot treated with medication. Instead, your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes to manage this condition.

Stage 1 Hypertension

This is when the systolic blood pressure is between 130 and 139 mm Hg and the diastolic blood pressure is between 80 and 89 mm Hg. It can managed through lifestyle changes and mild medications.

Stage 2 Hypertension

This is when the systolic blood pressure is over 140 mm Hg and the diastolic blood pressure is over 90 mm Hg. This is a serious condition and requires immediate drug treatment.

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Hypertension Crisis

This is when the systolic blood pressure is above 180 mm Hg and the diastolic blood pressure is above 120 mm Hg. This is a medical emergency and the person may need to be hospitalized immediately. The patient may experience symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, and blurred vision, suggesting that the person’s blood pressure is above normal.

Depending on the cause, high blood pressure is further classified into two main categories. These are the following types:

Primary Hypertension (Essential Hypertension)

In these cases, no cause of high blood pressure is known. It develops gradually over the years and usually occurs in older people. Plaque build-up in the arteries increases the risk of high blood pressure in the elderly.

Secondary Hypertension

This High Blood Pressure is caused by an underlying disease. It can usually be managed by treating the underlying condition. These conditions can include adrenal tumors, congenital heart disease, kidney disease, drugs like cocaine, and thyroid problems.

Symptoms of High Blood Pressure

High Blood Pressure can be easily diagnosed based on blood pressure readings. However, there can also be some symptoms that can shed light on high blood pressure in people.

  1. Blood rushing to your cheeks
  2. Blood spots in your eyes
  3. Dizziness
  4. Increased heart rate
  5. Headache
  6. Nausea or Vomiting
  7. Nose bleeds
  8. Shortness of breath
  9. Excessive Sweating

These symptoms are difficult to attribute to high blood pressure, since they also occur with other diseases. It is therefore important that you have regular check-ups and have your blood pressure measured so that you do not miss any changes in your blood pressure.

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Causes of High Blood Pressure

The causes of High Blood Pressure depend on the type of hypertension that the person has.

Causes of Primary Hypertension

This type of high blood pressure usually develops over time and is caused by the following factors:

Family History

A person whose blood relative has high blood pressure is at a higher risk of developing high blood pressure than other people.


Older people tend to have narrowed arteries, leading to high blood pressure. This is the most common trigger of high blood pressure in the population.


The black population is more prone to high blood pressure than other races.


Obese people tend to have heart problems and artery disease, which can lead to the development of high blood pressure.


Heavy alcohol consumption can cause serious damage to the body’s organs such as the liver, arteries and heart, which can eventually develop into high blood pressure.

Sedentary Lifestyle

A sedentary lifestyle and lack of exercise can lead to various muscular and internal problems. This can lead to high blood pressure.

High Sodium Intake

High levels of sodium in the blood are associated with high blood pressure because sodium leads to increased heart activity.

Causes of Secondary Hypertension

This type of Hypertension is usually the result of some other underlying condition. It can be treated by treating the cause of Hypertension.

  1. Adrenal Gland Tumours
  2. Kidney Disorders
  3. Congenital Heart Disorders
  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  5. Drugs such as cocaine, heroine, etc
  6. Endocrine Tumours
  7. Thyroid Disorders
  8. Diabetes

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Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

High Blood Pressure is easily diagnosed by simply measuring blood pressure. However, there is always a chance that blood pressure readings will change depending on how stressed you are in the hospital, how you got into the hospital, and other reasons. Therefore, your doctor may also recommend the following diagnostic tests to rule out other medical conditions.

Ambulatory Monitoring

It monitors your blood pressure over time to get an idea of ​​when your blood pressure is increasing. It too monitors your blood pressure at regular intervals.

Blood and Urine tests

Blood and urine tests are also done to check for medications and other markers of high blood pressure. These tests are too used to check as more conditions, such as kidney or thyroid problems.

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

An EKG is done to check that your heart is working properly. It provides readings about the rhythm of your heartbeat.


This is a non-invasive test used to take a detailed picture of the heart to check that it is functioning properly. It uses sound waves to devise detailed images of the heart.

Exercise Tolerance Test (ETT)

This is a type of EKG that is taken when the patient is engaged in any activity. This shows the stress your heart feels when your heart is subjected to physical exertion or other physical activity.

Treatment of High Blood Pressure

The most common and effective treatment for persistent high blood pressure is medication. Your doctor may prescribe you the following cure to treat your Hypertension.

Beta Blockers

It works by blocking the beta channels in your heart. This reduces the pressure of the heartbeat, thereby lowering your blood pressure. It also blocks some hormones from raising your blood pressure.

ACE inhibitors

Angiotensin is a chemical that causes an increase in High Blood Pressure by narrowing your arteries. ACE inhibitors prevent the formation of this chemical, thereby preventing blood pressure from rising. These drugs too relax the blood vessels.

Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)

Unlike ACE inhibitors, these drugs prevent the angiotensin chemical from binding to the receptors, preventing it from working and lowering blood pressure.

Calcium blockers

These drugs block calcium from entering your heart, preventing your heart from beating faster and more powerfully. This lowers blood pressure and pressure on your heart.


Diuretics increase urination. This removes high sodium and excess fluid from your body, which can lower your blood pressure.

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Home Remedies of High Blood Pressure

There are many home remedies to treat High Blood Pressure so you don’t have to take any medication. Some of these important home remedies are list below:

Healthy Diet

Eat a healthy diet with fruits and vegetables. This will help you control your blood pressure and prevent the complications of high blood pressure.

Regular Exercise

To keep your body and heart healthy, you should exercise regularly. This allows your heart to meet your body’s demands with fewer beats and less force, helping to prevent high blood pressure.

Controlling Your Weight

Keep your weight at an optimal level so your heart doesn’t have to work harder to pump blood into your arteries. It also means eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly.

Reduce Stress In Your Life

Stress is one of the most common causes of high blood pressure today. Controlling the stress in your life can also help control your blood pressure.

Quit Smoking & Alcohol

Smoking and addiction are link to high blood pressure. To control your blood pressure, you should limit your alcohol consumption and smoking habits.

Decrease Sodium Intake

High sodium intake is well-known to cause High Blood Pressure. Minimizing the amount of salt in your diet can help you control your sodium intake, thereby lowering your blood pressure.

Complications of High Blood Pressure

It is known that High Blood Pressure can cause many complications if not treat in time. Below are the utmost common complexity associate with high blood pressure.

Heart Attack

Persistent high blood pressure can put extreme pressure on your heart. This can lead to a heart attack, which is becoming increasingly common in today’s world.


Stroke is other problem of High Blood Pressure. In this condition, the vessels in the brain rupture, cutting off the blood supply to your brain and causing a stroke. This can be life-threatening or permanently disable the patient.


Aneurysms occur when parts of your arteries bulge outward. These are life-threatening when they occur in any of the main arteries. High blood pressure can rupture these aneurysms and cause internal bleeding.

Heart Failure

Heart failure is when your heart stops beating and pumping blood through your body. This is a deadly complication and can result in death of the patient if not treate promptly.

Kidney Problems

High blood pressure can also damage the vessels in your kidneys. This can lead to kidney failure, so you will need a kidney transplant.


Dementia is a common complication of High Blood Pressure and poor concentration. Dementia means that the person suffers from forgetfulness and cannot remember small details of their everyday life. at cdc.gov

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High Blood Pressure FAQ’S

What are the symptoms of high blood pressure?

Tragically, hypertension can occur without feeling any unusual side effects. Moderate or extreme migraines, nervousness, windedness, nosebleeds, palpitations, or sensation of throbs in the neck are a few indications of hypertension.

Which four stages of hypertension are there?

Normal (120/80 mm Hg), elevate (>130/80 mm Hg), and hypertension stage 2 (>140/90 mm Hg) are the four stages of hypertension. A hypertensive crisis is a condition in which your blood pressure rises significantly. Here your pulse readings surpass 180/120 mm Hg.

What should I do if my BP is 140-90?

Two or more times, your blood pressure is 140/90 or higher. Although your blood pressure is typically within the normal range and is well control, it occasionally exceeds that range.

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